nationalsecuritylaw forthcoming scholarship

1. Volume 87 of the Naval War College Blue Book, “International Law and the Changing Character of War”

The Naval War College International Law Department recently published volume 87 of its International Law Studies "Blue Book" series. The Blue Book has served as an invaluable resource for scholars and practitioners of international law since 1901. Volume 87 is entitled "International Law and the Changing Character of War." It includes scholarly papers by Prof Mike Schmitt, Prof Yoram Dinstein, and Dr. Nicholas Rostow among many other key leaders in the field. A copy of volume 87 may be downloaded from Naval War College website (ILD or (401) 841-4949.

PART I: OPENING ADDRESS

I Combating Terrorists: Legal Challenges in the Post-9/11 World

Nicholas Rostow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

PART II: OVERVIEW: INTERNATIONAL LAW CHALLENGES IN

ASYMMETRICALWAR

II Mission Impossible? International Law and the Changing

Character of War

John F. Murphy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

PART III: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF THE BATTLEFIELD: THE USE OF

FORCE IN CYBERSPACE

III Cyber Attacks as “Force” under UN Charter Article 2(4)

Matthew C. Waxman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

IV Low-Intensity Computer Network Attack and Self-Defense

Sean Watts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

V Cyber Operations and the Jus in Bello: Key Issues

Michael N. Schmitt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

PART IV: LUNCHEON ADDRESS

VI Who May Be Held? Military Detention through the Habeas Lens

Robert M. Chesney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

PART V: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF THE PARTICIPANTS INWAR:

CIVILIANIZATION OFWARFIGHTING AND THE CONCEPT OF “DIRECT

PARTICIPATION IN HOSTILITIES”

VII The Changing Character of the Participants in War:

Civilianization ofWarfighting and the Concept of “Direct

Participation in Hostilities”

Charles Garraway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

VIII Direct Participation in Hostilities and the Interoperability of the

Law of Armed Conflict and Human Rights Law

Françoise J. Hampson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

PART VI: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OFWEAPON SYSTEMS: UNMANNED

SYSTEMS/UNMANNED VEHICLES

IX Use of Unmanned Systems to Combat Terrorism

Raul A. “Pete” Pedrozo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

X New Technology and the Law of Armed Conflict

Darren M. Stewart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

PART VII: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF TACTICS: LAWFARE IN

ASYMMETRICAL CONFLICTS

XI The Law of Armed Conflict in Asymmetric Urban Armed

Conflict

David E. Graham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

XII Lawfare Today . . . and Tomorrow

Charles J. Dunlap, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

XIII The Age of Lawfare

Dale Stephens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

XIV Warning Civilians Prior to Attack under International Law:

Theory and Practice

Pnina Sharvit Baruch and Noam Neuman. . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

PART VIII: THE CHANGING CHARACTER OF LEGAL SCRUTINY: RULE SET,

INVESTIGATION, AND ENFORCEMENT IN ASYMMETRICAL CONFLICTS

XV The Changing Character of Public Legal Scrutiny of Operations

Rob McLaughlin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

XVI Litigating HowWe Fight

Ashley S. Deeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427

XVII Asymmetric Warfare: How to Respond?

Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463

PART IX: CLOSING ADDRESS

XVIII Concluding Remarks: LOAC and Attempts to Abuse or

Subvert It

Yoram Dinstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

Appendix—Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497

Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507

2. Virtual Checkpoints and Cyber-Terry Stops: Digital Scans to Protect the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources

Scott J. Glick*

Journal of National Security Law and Policy (forthcoming Vol. 6:1)

The cybersecurity risks to the nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources are significant and increasing every day. While a sound legal basis exists for the government to use computer intrusion detection technology to protect its own networks, critical infrastructure and key resources which are primarily owned by the private sector are governed by a different set of constitutional principles and laws. This Article explores the potential for a new cybersecurity exception to the Fourth Amendment’s warrant and individualized suspicion requirements. By viewing cybersecurity through a protective Fourth Amendment lens, as opposed to a criminal, intelligence, or military lens, fairly well established legal frameworks from the physical world can be applied to cyberspace to enable the government to use technology to identify malicious digital codes that may be attacking the nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources without running afoul of the Fourth Amendment. The Article argues that reasonable and limited digital scans at virtual checkpoints in cyberspace, which are binary and do not initially expose the contents of the communications to human review, are a constitutional and effective way to minimize the cybersecurity risks to the nation. The Article proposes that the Congress consider and enact sensible new legislation that will specifically enable the government to take remedial and other protective actions in cyberspace within the constitutional framework that has enabled this nation to prosper. * Senior Counsel, National Security Division, U.S. Department of Justice. This article has been reviewed for publication by the Justice Department in accordance with 28 C.F.R. § 17.18. The views expressed in this article are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Justice Department.

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